In the UAE, the death penalty is imposed for some crimes. Extradition can only lawfully occur if an assurance is given that it will at least not be carried out, Article 8 IRG. This also means that extraditions can be made even though the offence in question is generally punishable by death in the United Arab Emirates.
Torture and treatment that would violate human rights preclude extradition from Germany under Article 3 ECHR.
According to reports by Amnesty International, arbitrary detentions were carried out in 2021 and detainees were treated cruelly and inhumanely. After serving their sentences, detainees continued to be held, sometimes for years. There is a lack of hygiene products in the prison cells, and detainees are not allowed to have personal belongings. In addition, prisoners are forced to strip naked.
Homosexuality and any extramarital sexual activity are illegal and punishable by at least 1-year imprisonment. The death penalty may be imposed for homosexual acts.
Civil rights and women’s rights:
Freedom of expression or freedom of the press is practically non-existent in the UAE. Critical journalists often face heavy prison sentences. The international NGO Reporters Without Borders ranks the UEA 138th out of 180 in a press freedom ranking.
The right to privacy is not particularly respected in the UAE either. The reports on extensive cyber surveillance that helps the government track down political opponents and critics are still growing daily.
In 2021, Human Rights Watch submitted a report on eliminating discrimination against women to the United Nations, of which the UAE is a member. The report specifically criticized the fact that women still need the consent of their male guardians in many everyday transactions.